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Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Knowledge About Animals.

Respiration is a tool or the tool body 02 can berdifusi the entrance and the C02 can berdifusi out.

Tools respiration in animals vary from one animal to another animal, there is a form of lung, gill, skin, trakea, lungs and books, even some organisms that do not have a special tool so that berdifusi oxygen directly from the environment into body, for example, in animal cells that have one, porifera, and coelenterata. In the third animal is berdifusi oxygen from the environment through the body cavity.

1. Insect respiration on the Hearing

Air shaft (trakea) is a respiratory equipment that is owned by insects and other arthropoda. Trakea empty vessel in a small hole in the external framework (eksoskeleton) called spirakel. Spirakel tubular astigmatism that kitin layered substances, and is located a pair on each body segment. Spirakel
men have a valve so that the muscles are controlled by opening and closing spirakel happen regularly. In general spirakel open for flying insects, insects and closed at rest.

Oxygen from the outside through the entrance spirakel. Then spirakel air from the tube-tube and tube trakea ramose trakea into fine branches called trakeolus so that they can reach the entire network and tools in the body. Trakeolus not kitin layered, containing liquid, and formed by cells called trakeoblas. Gas exchange occurs between trakeolus with the body's cells. Trakeolus has the same functionality with the capillary system on the carriage (transportation) in the vertebrata.

Respiratory mechanisms in insects, such as locusts, are as follows:

If the muscle belly of locusts berkontraksi then trakea mexrupih so rich air out Coz. Conversely, if the muscle belly of locusts berelaksasi then trakea back to the original volume so that the air pressure becomes smaller than the outside pressure as a result, the air outside the entrance to the 02 rich trakea.

Functioning transport system trakea OZ and to circulate throughout the body, and carry the bacillus C02 respiration to remove from the body. Thus, the blood work only on the insects carry pollen to non-food and respiratory gas transport.

At the end of the trakeolus there is a liquid so that air berdifusi easy to network. On water insects such as mosquitoes jentik, air obtained with the respiratory tube to protrude the surface of the water to take the air.

Insects have a water air bubbles so that they can dive in the water in time. For example, Notonecta sp. have any air bubbles in the organ that resembles the hair on the ventral surface. During the dive, O2 in the bubble to move through the system trakea to respiratory cells.

In addition, there are insects that have a gill trakea the work to absorb air from water, or air through the branches fine gill similar. Then this fine branch of oxygen distributed through the duct trakea.

2. Hearing on the respiratory scorpion-profit and profit

Scorpion and spider big (Arachnida) that live on land have a means of respiratory lung book, while living in the water when breathing with the gill books.
Lungs have a book coming from the coil invaginasi stomach. Individual lungs this book has a sheet-thin sheet (lamela) is arranged in line. Paruparu this book also has a place of entrance spirakel oxygen from the outside.

Exit air caused by the insertion of muscle movements that occur regularly.

Both gill and book lungs of both books have the same function as the lung function in the vertebrata.

3. Hearing on the respiratory Fish

Gill owned by the species of fish (pisces). Gill-shaped sheets of thin pink and always lembap. The most out of the gill associated with water, whereas in the closely related with the capillary-capillary blood. Each gill consists of a pair of filamen dare, and each contains many filamen lamina (lamela). Filamen there on the blood vessel that has a lot of capillary OZ berdifusi allowing incoming and outgoing CO2 berdifusi. In the fish gill is covered by the original bony gill cover, called opercullum, while bony fish in the gill is not prone to be covered by opercullum.

Gill not only as a means of respiratory function but can also function as a tool ekskresi salt-salt, food filters, ion exchange equipment, and osmoregulator. Some species of fish have a labyrinth which is the expansion to the top of the gill and form so that the fold-fold-hollow cavity is not regular. This labyrinth save backup function so that 02 fish hold on condition that lack of 02. Examples of fish that have a labyrinth is: stopple fish and catfish. To save the backup 02, in addition to the labyrinth, the fish has a bubble pool is located near the back.

Respiratory mechanisms in the fish through step 2, ie, inspiration and ekspirasi. In the inspiration phase, 02 out of the water into the gill and 02 bound by capillary blood to be brought to the networks that need. Instead the phase ekspirasi, C02 is carried by the blood of the network will be empty and the gill to gill diekskresi out of the body.

In addition to owned by the fish gill is also owned by the frogs in the tadpole phase, the external gill. Animals that have external gill throughout his life is salamander.

4. Tools respiratory in frogs

In the frog, oxygen berdifusi peritoneal cavity through the mouth, skin, and lungs. Except in the tadpole phase with gill breathing in the water because of his life. Peritoneal cavity mouth can act as a respiratory thin and there are lots of empty capillary that is in place. At the time the movement occurred mouth cavity and faring, Iubang nose glotis open and closed so that air is in the mouth cavity and the diffusion occurs through the membrane enter the mouth cavity is thin. In addition to breathing with the mouth cavity membrane, the frog breathe with the skin, the skin is possible karma is always in a state of wet and contain so many capillary gas respiratory berdifusi easy. Oxygen entering through the skin akan vena through the skin (vena kutanea) and then brought to the heart to distributed to the entire body. Instead of carbon dioxide in the network will take it to heart, from heart pumped to the skin and lungs through the arterial pare skin tuberculosis (arterial pulmo kutanea). Thus the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide can occur in the skin.

In addition to breathing with the mouth cavity and coating the skin, breathing frogs also paruparu with tuberculosis-although not as good as parunya lungs mammals.

Frogs have a pair of lungs in the bubble where bermuaranya capillary blood. Surface of the lung by the enlarged forms, such as respiratory bag so that gas can berdifusi. Lungs with mouth cavity connected by a short bronkus.

In the lungs occurs and inspiration ekspirasi mechanism that occurs when both the mouth closed. Inspiration phase is when the air (oxygen rich) that enter through the peritoneal cavity and skin of the mouth berdifusi the bubble-bubble in the lungs. The mechanism is as follows inspiration. Konstraksi muscle Sternohioideus going up so that the mouth cavity, consequently oxygen entering through koane.

After that koane close the mandible and the muscle and muscle contraction occurs so that geniohioideus mouth cavity over time. Mengecilnya mouth cavity pushing oxygen into the lungs through the midst. In the lungs gas exchange occurs, oxygen bound by the blood capillary walls in the lungs and vice versa, carbon dioxide is released to the environment. Ekspirasi mechanism is as follows. Stomach musculature and sternohioideus berkontraksi so that the air in the lungs it out and into the mouth cavity. Cleft palate and close the opening koane. At the same time, under the jaw muscle contraction which also happens followed by the contraction geniohioideus so that the mouth cavity becomes smaller. But the mouth of the air cavity that is rich carbon dioxide out.

5. Hearing on the respiratory reptilia

Reptilia lungs in thoracic cavity and protected by the rib. Lungs reptilia more simple, with only a few folding wall function of increasing gas exchange surface. Reptilia on gas exchange is not effective.

In the lizard, turtle, crocodile and lungs more complex, with some of the cleavage-making paru-parunya Texturized as spon. Lungs in some type of lizard, for example vacillator Africa have air sac that allows the animal back up to float in the air.
6. Hearing on the respiratory Birds

In birds, where the respiratory gas berdifusinya only occur in the lungs. Lungs and a pair of birds was located in the thoracic cavity is protected by the rib.

Respiratory routes in birds started in the nostril. At this place, the air entering and forwarded to the cleft palate on the basis that there is faring connecting trakea. Trakeanya long bony prone to form a pipe-shaped ring, and the end of the trakea diverge into two parts, namely bronkus right and left bronkus. In bronkus on the base of the trakea there sirink on the inside there is a bending-bending form of the membrane can vibrate. Bergetarnya membrane that cause sound. Bronkus fork into mesobronkus which is a secondary bronkus and can be divided into ventrobronkus (in the ventral part) and dorsobronkus (in the dorsal part). Ventrobronkus associated with dorsobronkus, by many parabronkus (100 or more).

Parabronkus form tubes tubule. Parabronkus empty lot in the capillary allowing air diffusion occurs. In addition to lungs, birds have 8 or 9 expansion lung or air sac (sakus pneumatikus) that spread to the stomach, neck, and wings. Sac elements associated with the lungs and thin tunicate. In the air sac is not going respiratory gas diffusion; air sac only serves as a storage backup and ease the body's oxygen. Because of the air sac in birds the respiratory become efficient. Sac elements found in the base of the neck (servikal), space the front of the chest (anterior Toraks), between the clavicle (korakoid), chest to the back of the room (Toraks posterior), and in the stomach cavity (abdominal air sac).

Inclusion of oxygen-rich air to the lungs (inspiration) due to contraction of muscles antartulang rib (interkostal) so that the slats move out and move to the sternum down. Or in other words, suck up the air with the birds do increase the chest cavity so that air pressure in the chest cavity to become smaller in the entry of outside air. Outside air entering a small living in the lungs, and most will be forwarded to the air sac as a backup air.

Air sac in the air at the time used only air (OZ) in paruparu reduced, ie, when the birds are wings flutter. When wing flap or appointed to the top of the air bag in the corner so that the bones korakoid oxygen at the entrance to the lungs. Instead, ekspirasi occur when muscle relaxation interkostal the rib and sternum back to original position, so that the thoracic cavity and pressure decline becomes greater than the outside air pressure in the air result from the lungs of carbon dioxide rich exit. Mengecilnya together with the thoracic cavity, the air bag from the air into the lungs and release oxygen occurs in the capillary tube in the lungs. Thus, release oxygen in the lungs can occur while ekspirasi and inspiration.
Respiratory chart on the perch when the bird is as follows.

Birds inhale þ bronkus air flow through the sac to the rear air þ simultaneously with the air already in the lungs into the air sac þ air sac in the back of the flow to the lungs þ earthen jar to hold water to the air - earthen jar to hold water before sex.

Respiration on the speed of various animals from many different subject matters, among others, activities, health and body weight.


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